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A cystic hygroma is a mass that commonly occurs in the head and neck area. It is a birth defect.
A cystic hygroma occurs as the baby grows in the womb. It forms from pieces of material that carry fluid and white blood cells. Such material is called embryonic lymphatic tissue. After birth, a cystic hygroma usually looks like a soft bulge under the skin. The cyst may not be recognized at birth. It typically grows as the child does, and sometimes is not noticed until the child is older.
Sometimes, a cystic hygroma is seen when the baby is still in the womb using a pregnancy ultrasound. This can mean that the baby has a chromosomal problem or other birth defects.
Camitta BM. Abnormalities of lymphatic vessels. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 489.
Richards DS. Ultrasound for pregnancy dating, growth, and the diagnosis of fetal malformations. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2007:chap 9.
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