Note: Symptoms may worsen with exposure to cold or with emotional stress. Usually, two or more limbs are affected.
The hands or feet may have large, red, tender blood vessels. The pulse in the affected hands or feet may be low or missing.
The following tests may show blockage of blood vessels in the affected hands or feet:
Blood tests for other causes of vasculitis and inflammation may be done. Rarely, in cases where the diagnosis is unclear, a biopsy of the blood vessel is done.
Olin JW. Other peripheral arterial diseases. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 80.
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