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Mitral insufficiency; Acute mitral regurgitation
Acute mitral regurgitation is a disorder in which the heart's mitral valve suddenly does not close properly, causing blood to flow backward (leak) into the upper heart chamber when the left lower heart chamber contracts.
See also: Chronic mitral regurgitation
Regurgitation means leaking from a valve that doesn't close all the way. Diseases that weaken or damage the valve or its supporting structures cause mitral regurgitation.
When the mitral valve doesn't close all the way, blood flows backward into the left upper heart chamber (atrium). This leads to a decrease in blood flow to the rest of the body. As a result, the heart may try to pump harder.
Acute mitral regurgitation may be caused by dysfunction or injury to the valve following a heart attack or infection of the heart valve (infective endocarditis). These conditions may rupture the valve or surrounding structures, leaving an opening for blood to move backwards.
Karchmer AW. Infectious endocarditis. In: Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 8th ed. St. Louis, Mo: WB Saunders; 2007:chap 63.
Nishimura RA, Carabello BA, Faxon DP, et al. ACC/AHA 2008 Guideline update on valvular heart disease: focused update on infective endocarditis: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:676-685.
Fullerton DA, Harken AH. Acquired heart disease: valvular. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 28th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2008:chap 62.
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