Diffuse thyrotoxic goiter
The purpose of treatment is to control the overactivity of the thyroid gland. Beta-blockers such as propranolol are often used to treat symptoms of rapid heart rate, sweating, and anxiety until the hyperthyroidism is controlled. Hyperthyroidism is treated with one or more of the following:
If you have radiation and surgery, you will need to take replacement thyroid hormones for the rest of your life, because these treatments destroy or remove the gland.
Some of the eye problems related to Graves disease usually improve when hyperthyroidism is treated with medications, radiation, or surgery. Radioactive iodine can sometimes make eye problems worse. Eye problems are worse in people who smoke, even after the hyperthyroidism is cured.
Sometimes prednisone (a steroid medication that suppresses the immune system) is needed to reduce eye irritation and swelling.
You may need to tape your eyes closed at night to prevent drying. Sunglasses and eyedrops may reduce eye irritation. Rarely, surgery or radiation therapy (different from radioactive iodine) may be needed to return the eyes to their normal position.
Graves disease often responds well to treatment. However, thyroid surgery or radioactive iodine usually will cause hypothyroidism. Without getting the correct dose of thyroid hormone replacement, hypothyroidism can lead to:
Antithyroid medications can also have serious side effects.
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of Graves disease. Also call if your eye problems or general symptoms get worse (or do not improve) with treatment.
Go to the emergency room or call the local emergency number (such as 911) if you have symptoms of hyperthyroidism with:
AACE Thyroid Task Force. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice fo rthe evaluation and treatment of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Endocr Pract. 2002;8(6).
Davies TF, Larsen PR. Thyrotoxicosis. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 11.
Ladenson P, Kim M. Thyroid. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 244.
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