This condition is diagnosed when other causes of kidney failure are ruled out by the appropriate tests.
A physical examination does not directly reveal kidney failure. However, the exam will usually show signs of chronic liver disease:
Other signs include:
The following may be signs of kidney failure:
The following may be signs of liver failure:
Garcia-Tsao G. Cirrhosis and its sequellae. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier. 2007: chap 157.
Schuppan D, Afdhal NH. Liver cirrhosis. Lancet. 2008;371:838-851.
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