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Before the AIDS epidemic, Kaposi's sarcoma was seen mainly in elderly Italian and Jewish men, and rarely, in elderly women. Among this group, the tumors developed slowly. In AIDS patients, the cancer can develop quickly. The cancer may also involve the skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs.
In people with AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma is caused by an interaction between HIV, a weakened immune system, and the human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8). Kaposi's sarcoma has been linked to the spread of HIV and HHV-8 through sexual activity.
People who have kidney or other organ transplants are also at risk for Kaposi's sarcoma.
African Kaposi's sarcoma is fairly common in young adult males living near the equator. One form is also common in young African children.
Volberding PA. Hematology and oncology in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 416.
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