Neurosyphilis is an infection of the brain or spinal cord. It usually occurs in persons who have had untreated syphilis for many years.
Neurosyphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum, the bacteria that cause syphilis. It usually occurs about 10 - 20 years after a person is first infected with syphilis. Not everyone who has syphilis will develop this complication.
There are four different forms of neurosyphilis:
Asymptomatic neurosyphilis occurs before symptomatic syphilis.
Hook EW. Syphilis. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007: chap 340.
Tramont EC. Treponema pallidum (syphilis). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 238.
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