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Dysphonia - spasmodic
The voice is usually hoarse or grating. It may waver and pause. The voice may sound strained or strangled, and it may seem as if the speaker has to use extra effort (known as adductor dysphonia).
Sometimes, the voice is whispery or breathy (abductor dysphonia).
Some people will find that the problem goes away when they laugh, whisper, speak in a high-pitched voice, sing, or shout.
Some patients will have muscle tone problems in other parts of the body (such as writer's cramp).
Goetz CG, ed. Textbook of Clinical Neurology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 13.
Blitzer A, Alexander RE, Grant NN. Neurologic disorders of the larynx. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier;2010:chap 60.
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