Parkinsonism - secondary
Symptoms of parkinsonism may include:
Although cognitive problems are not as common in Parkinson's disease, they may be more likely in secondary parkinsonism. This is because the diseases that cause secondary parkinsonism often lead to dementia.
For a more detailed description of symptoms, see Parkinson's disease.
The health care provider may be able to diagnose secondary parkinsonism based on your history, symptoms, and a physical examination. However, the symptoms may be difficult to assess, particularly in the elderly.
Examination may show:
Reflexes are usually normal.
Tests are not usually specific for secondary parkinsonism. However, they may be used to confirm or rule out other disorders that can cause similar symptoms.
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Lang AE. When and how should treatment be started in Parkinson disease? Neurology. 2009;72(7 Suppl):S39-43.
Lewitt PA. Levodopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med. 2008;359(23):2468-76.
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