Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) - Overview
PID; Oophoritis; Salpingitis; Salpingo-oophoritis; Salpingo-peritonitis
Definition of Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID):
Pelvic inflammatory disease is a general term for infection of the uterus lining, fallopian tubes, or ovaries.
See also: Endometritis
Causes, incidence, and risk factors:
Most cases of pelvic inflammatory disease are caused by bacteria that move from the vagina or cervix into the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, or pelvis.
The most common cause of PID is sexual contact without using a condom or other protection. This is called a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the two bacteria that cause most cases of PID.
However, bacteria may also enter the body during some surgical or office procedures, such as:
In the United States, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year. About 1 in 8 sexually active adolescent girls will develop PID before age 20.
Risk factors include:
- Male sexual partner with gonorrhea or chlamydia
- Multiple sexual partners
- Past history of any sexually transmitted disease
- Past history of PID
- Recent insertion of an IUD
- Sexual activity during adolescence
- Reviewed last on: 9/2/2009
- Susan Storck, MD, FACOG, Chief, Eastside Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Redmond, Washington; Clinical Teaching Facility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update to sexually transmitted diseases guidelines, 2006: fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections. MMWR. 2007;56:332-336.
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for gonorrhea: recommendation statement. Am Fam Physician. 2005;72:1783-1786.
Meyers D, Wolff T, Gregory K, et al. USPSTF recommendations for STI screening. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:819-824.
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