Most people with hypertensive retinopathy do not have symptoms until late in the disease.
Malignant hypertension may cause the following sudden symptoms, and should be considered a medical emergency:
Using an instrument called an ophthalmoscope, your health care provider can see narrowing of blood vessels, and signs that fluid has leaked from blood vessels.
The degree of retina damage (retinopathy) is graded on a scale of 1 to 4:
Fluorescein angiography may be used to examine the blood vessels.
Kovach JL, Schwartz SG, Schneider S, Rosen RB. Systemic hypertension and the eye. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology. 15th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2009:chap 13.
Klig JE. Ophthalmologic complications of systemic disease. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008;26(1):217-231.
Rogers AH. Hypertensive retinopathy. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 3rd ed. St. Louis Mo: Mosby Elsevier;2008:chap 6.15.
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