Cleft palate; Craniofacial defect
Cleft lip and palate are birth defects that affect the upper lip and the roof of the mouth.
There are many causes of cleft lip and palate. Problems with genes passed down from one or both parents, drugs, viruses, or other toxins can all cause these birth defects. Cleft lip and palate may occur along with other syndromes or birth defects.
A cleft lip and palate can:
Risk factors include a family history of cleft lip or palate and other birth defects. About 1 out of 2,500 people have a cleft palate.
Friedman O, Wang TD, Milczuk HA. Cleft lip and palate. In: Cummings CW, Flint PW, Haughey BH, et al, eds. Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2005:chap 176.
Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF. Cleft lip and palate. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 307.
Arosarena OA. Cleft lip and palate. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2007 Feb;40(1):27-60.
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