The main symptom is a swollen thyroid gland. The size may range from a single small nodule to a large neck lump.
The swollen thyroid can put pressure on the windpipe and esophagus, which can lead to:
There may be neck vein swelling and dizziness when the arms are raised above the head.
The doctor will feel your neck as you swallow. The doctor may be able to feel swelling in the area.
Tests that may be done include:
If nodules are found on ultrasound, a biopsy should be done to check for thyroid cancer.
Vanderpas J. Nutritional epidemiology and thyroid hormone metabolism. Ann Rev Nutr. 2006; 26:293-322.
AACE/AME. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules. Endocr Pract. 2006;12(1):63-102.
Ladenson P, Kim M. Thyroid. In: Goldman L and Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders; 2007:chap 244.
Schlumberger MJ, Filetti S, Hay ID. Nontoxic diffuse and nodular goiter and thyroid neoplasia. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2008:chap 13.
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