Scoliosis - Overview
Spinal curvature; Kyphoscoliosis
Definition of Scoliosis:
Scoliosis is a curving of the spine. The spine curves away from the middle or sideways.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors:
There are three general causes of scoliosis:
- Congenital (present at birth) scoliosis is due to a problem with the formation of the spine bones (vertebrae) or fused ribs during development in the womb or early in life.
- Neuromuscular scoliosis is caused by problems such as poor muscle control or muscle weakness, or paralysis due to diseases such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida, and polio.
- Idiopathic scoliosis is scoliosis of unknown cause. Idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents is the most common type.
Some people may be prone to curving of the spine. Most cases occur in girls. Curves generally worsen during growth spurts. Scoliosis in infants and young children are less common, and commonly affect boys and girls equally.
- Reviewed last on: 9/17/2009
- David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.., and C. Benjamin Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Dept of Orthopaedic Surgery.
Hedequist DJ. Surgical treatment of congenital scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 2007;38(4):497-509, vi.
Lonner, B. S. Emerging minimally invasive technologies for the management of scoliosis. Orthop Clin North Am. 2007;38(3): 431-440.
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