Get answers to your Pediatric Surgery questions.
Epispadias is a rare congenital (present from birth) defect located at the opening of the urethra.
In this condition, the urethra does not develop into a full tube and the urine exits the body from an abnormal location.
The causes of epispadias are unknown at this time. Itmay be related to improper development of the pubic bone.
In boys with epispadias, the urethra generally opens on the top or side of the penis rather than the tip. However, it is possible for the urethra to be open along the entire length of the penis.
In girls, the opening is usually between the clitoris and the labia, but may be in the belly area.
Epispadias can be associated with bladder exstrophy, an uncommon birth defect in which the bladder is inside out, and sticks through the abdominal wall. However, epispadias can also occur with other defects.
Epispadias occurs in 1 in 117,000 newborn boys and 1 in 484,000 newborn girls. The condition is usually diagnosed at birth or shortly thereafter.
Surgical repair of epispadias is recommended in patients with more than a mild case. Leakage of urine (incontinence) is not uncommon and may require a second operation.
Surgery generally leads to the ability to control the flow of urine and a good cosmetic outcome.
Persistent urinary incontinence can occur in some persons with this condition even after several operations.
Upper urinary tract (ureter and kidney) damage and infertility may occur.
Call your health care provider if you have any questions or concerns regarding your child's genitourinary tract appearance or function.
Gearhart JP, Mathews R. Exstrophy-epispadias complex. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 119.
Elder JS. Anomalies of the bladder. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 541.
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