Get answers to your Pediatric Surgery questions.
Surgical repair of epispadias is recommended in patients with more than a mild case. Leakage of urine (incontinence) is not uncommon and may require a second operation.
Surgery generally leads to the ability to control the flow of urine and a good cosmetic outcome.
Persistent urinary incontinence can occur in some persons with this condition even after several operations.
Upper urinary tract (ureter and kidney) damage and infertility may occur.
Call your health care provider if you have any questions or concerns regarding your child's genitourinary tract appearance or function.
Gearhart JP, Mathews R. Exstrophy-epispadias complex. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 119.
Elder JS. Anomalies of the bladder. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 541.
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