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Hypospadias is a birth (congenital) defect in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside, rather than at the end, of the penis.
See also: Epispadias
Hypospadias affects up to 4 in 1,000 newborn boys.
Some cases are passed down through families. In other cases the cause is unknown.
Kraft KH, Shukla AR, Canning DA. Hypospadias. Urol Clin North Am. 2010. 37:167-81.
Elder JS. Anomalies of the penis and urethra. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 544.
Borer JG, Retik AB. Hypospadias. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 125.
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