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The condition varies in severity. In most cases, the opening of the urethra is located near the tip of the penis on the underside. More severe forms of hypospadias occur when the opening is at the midshaft or base of the penis. Occasionally, the opening is located in or behind the scrotum.
Males with this condition often have a downward curve (ventral curvature or chordee) of the penis during an erection. (Erections are common with infant boys.)
Other symptoms include:
A physical examination can diagnose this condition. Imaging tests may be needed to look for other congenital defects.
Kraft KH, Shukla AR, Canning DA. Hypospadias. Urol Clin North Am. 2010. 37:167-81.
Elder JS. Anomalies of the penis and urethra. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 544.
Borer JG, Retik AB. Hypospadias. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 125.
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