Vaccines are recommended for travel outside of the U.S., Canada, northern Europe, Australia, and New Zealand, and during epidemic outbreaks. If you are traveling to an area where there is typhoid fever, ask your health care provider if you should bring electrolyte packets in case you get sick.
Immunization is not always completely effective and at-risk travelers should drink only boiled or bottled water and eat well-cooked food. Studies of an oral live attenuated typhoid vaccine are now under way and appear promising.
Water treatment, waste disposal, and protecting the food supply from contamination are important public health measures. Carriers of typhoid must not be allowed to work as food handlers.
Giannella Ra. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 107.
Lima AAM, Guerrant RL. Inflammatory enteritides. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 97.
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