Water on the brain
The symptoms depend on the cause of the blockage, the person's age, and how much brain tissue has been damaged by the swelling.
In infants with hydrocephalus, CSF fluid builds up in the central nervous system, causing the fontanelle (soft spot) to bulge and the head to be larger than expected. Early symptoms may also include:
Symptoms that may occur in older children can include:
When a health care provider taps fingertips on the skull, there may be abnormal sounds that indicated thinning and separation of skull bones. Scalp veins may appear stretched or enlarged.
Part or the entire head may be larger than normal. Enlargement is most commonly seen in the front part of the head. Head circumference measurements, repeated over time, may show that the head is getting bigger.
The eyes may look "sunken in." The white part of the eye may appear above the colored part of the eye, given the eyes a "setting-sun" appearance. Reflexes may be abnormal.
A head CT scan is one of the best tests for identifying hydrocephalus. Other tests that may be done include:
Kinsman SL, Johnston MV. Congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 592.
Golden JA, Bönnemann CG. Developmental structural disorders. In: Goetz CG, eds. Textbook of Clinical Neurology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 28.
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