Risks are the same as for x-rays (radiation) and catheterization of the bladder.
There is a small amount of radiation exposure with any nuclear scan (it comes from the radioisotope, not the scanner). The exposure is less than with standard x-rays. The radiation is very mild, and virtually all radiation is gone in a short time. However, any radiation exposure is discouraged for women who are or might be pregnant.
Risks for catheterization include urinary tract infection and (rarely) damage to the urethra, bladder, or other nearby structures.
Bhayani SB, Siegel CL. Urinary tract imaging: Basic principles. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 4.
Bauer R, Kogan BA. New Developments in the Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric UTIs. Urol Clin North Am. 2008;35:47-58.
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