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Anterior cruciate ligament repair
ACL reconstruction is usually very successful. A torn ACL used to end the careers of many athletes. Now, improvements in the surgery and in rehabilitation provide much better results. These improvements include less pain and stiffness, fewer complications with the surgery itself, and faster recovery time. Most people will have a stable knee that does not give way after ACL reconstruction.
Phillips BB. Arthroscopy of the lower extremity. In: Canale ST, Beatty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2007:chap 48.
Honkamp NJ, Shen W, Okeke N, Ferretti M, Fu FH. Knee: Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in the adult. In: DeLee JC, Drez D Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap 23, section D.
Amy E, Micheo W. Anterior cruciate ligament tear: Knee and lower leg. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 55, section 7.
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