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Shunt - portacaval
People with liver disease are at a much higher risk for complications after surgery.
Patients with severe liver disease that is getting worse should be evaluated for liver transplant.
Shah VH, Kamath PS. Portal Hypertension and Gastrointestinal Bleeding. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Sleisenger MH, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtranâ€™s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 2010:chap 90.
Rikkers LF. Surgical Complications of Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 18th ed. St. Louis, Mo: WB Saunders; 2008: chap 53.
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