The Aloe vera plant has been used for thousands of years to heal a variety of conditions, most notably burns, wounds, skin irritations, and constipation. It is grown in subtropical and tropical locations, including South Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Aloe was one of the most frequently prescribed medicines throughout most of the 18th and 19th centuries and it remains one of the most commonly used herbs in the United States today. However, oral use of aloe for constipation is no longer recommended, as it can have severe side effects.
Aloe gel, made from the central part of the aloe leaf, is a common household remedy for minor cuts and burns, as well as sunburns. It can be found in many commercial skin lotions and cosmetics. Aloe contains active compounds that may reduce pain and inflammation and stimulate skin growth and repair. It is also an effective moisturizing agent. For this reason, aloe vera gel has gained tremendous popularity for relief of burns. In one study, burn sites treated with aloe healed completely in less than 16 days compared to 19 days for sites treated with silver sulfadiazine. In a review of the scientific literature, researchers found that patients who were treated with aloe vera healed an average of almost 9 days sooner than those who were not treated with the medicinal plant. However, other studies show mixed results. At least one study found that aloe actually delayed healing. Aloe is best used for minor burns and skin irritations and should never be applied to an open wound.
Herpes and skin conditions
Preliminary evidence suggests that aloe gel may improve symptoms of genital herpes and certain skin conditions such as psoriasis. One study found that aloe vera gel displayed anti-inflammatory effects superior to 1% hydrocortisone cream or a placebo gel. Another study found that aloe vera gel combined with tretinoin was more effective than tretinoin alone for treating acne. As such, researchers claim that aloe vera gel may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions, such as ultraviolet-induced erythema.
Aloe juice or aloe latex, a yellow, bitter liquid derived from the skin of the aloe leaf, is a powerful laxative. However, it can cause painful cramping and is not safe to use in this way.
Studies show that aloe vera gel inhibits the activity of several types of bacteria that may lead to cavities and gum disease. More research is needed.
Preliminary studies suggest that aloe juice may help lower blood sugar levels in people with type 2 (adult onset) diabetes. More research is needed to determine whether aloe is helpful for diabetes.
Alcohol-induced Liver Disease
Preliminary studies suggest that aloe vera extract may help mitigate the effects of alcohol-induced liver damage.
Auerbach: Wilderness Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011.
Beppu H, Shimpo K, Chihara T, et al. Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice: investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe components. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Feb 20;103(3):468-77.
Blumenthal M, Busse WR, Goldberg A, et al. The Complete German Commission E Monographs. Boston, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 1998.
Boudreau MD, Beland FA. An evaluation of the biological and toxicological properties of Aloe barbadensis (miller), Aloe vera. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2006 Apr;24(1):103-54.
Bunyapraphatsara N, Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, et al. Antidiabetic activity of aloe vera L. juice II. Clinical trial in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide. Phytomedicine. 1996;3:245-248.
Capasso F, Borrelli F, Capasso R, et al. Aloe and its therapeutic use. Phytother Res. 1998;12:S124-S127.
Cellini L, Di bartolomeo S, Di Campli E, Genovese S, Locatelli M, Di Giulio M. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against Helicobacter pylori strains. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2014;59(1):43-8.
Cowan D. Oral Aloe vera as a treatment for osteoarthritis: a summary. Br J Community Nurs. 2010;15(6):280-2.
Dat AD, Poon F, Pham KB, Doust J. Aloe vera for treating acute and chronic wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012(2).
Davis RH, Parker WL, Murdoch DP. Aloe vera as a biologically active vehicle for hydrocortisone acetate. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1991;81:1-9.
Devaraj S, Yimam M, Brownell LA, Jialal I, Singh S, Jia Q. Effects of Aloe vera supplementation in subjects with prediabetes/metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013;11(1):35-40.
du Plessis LH, Hamman JH. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of aloe whole leaf and gel materials. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2014;37(2):169-77.
Duke J. The Green Pharmacy. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press; 1997.
Ernst E. Adverse effects of herbal drugs in dermatology. Br J Derm. 2000;143:923-929.
Fani M, Kohanteb J. Inhibitory activity of Aloe vera gel on some clinically isolated cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria. J Oral Sci. 2012;54(1):15-21.
Fulton JE Jr. The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing. J Dermatol Surg Onco. 1990;16:460.
Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C, et al, eds. PDR for Herbal Medicines. 2nd ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company. 2000.
Hajheydari Z, Saeedi M, Morteza-Semnani K, Soltani A. Effect of Aloe vera topical gel combined with tretinoin in treatment of mild and moderate acne vulagaris: a randomized, double-blind, prospective trial. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014;25(2):123-9.
Heggers J, et al. Beneficial effects of aloe in wound healing. Phytother Res. 1993;7:S48-S52.
Jia Y, Zhao G, Jia J. Preliminary evaluation: the effects of Aloe ferox Miller and Aloe arborescens Miller on wound healing. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;120(2):181-9.
Karch SB. The Consumer's Guide to Herbal Medicine. Hauppauge, NY: Advanced Research Press; 1999:28-30.
Khorasani G, Hosseinimehr SJ, Azadbakht M, Zamani A, Mahdavi MR. Aloe versus silver sulfadiazine creams for second-degree burns: a randomized controlled study. Surg Today. 2009;39(7):587-91.
Maddocks-Jennings W, Wilkinson JM, Shillington D. Novel approaches to radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: a literature review. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2005 Nov;11(4):224-31.
Maenthaisong R, Chaiyakunapruk N, Niruntraporn S, Kongkaew C. The efficacy of aloe vera used for burn wound healing: a systematic review. Burns. 2007;33(6):713-8.
Mantle D, Gok MA, Lennard TW. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev. 2001;20(2):89-103.
Matsuda Y et al. One-year chronic toxicity study of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger in Wistar Hannover rats. A pilot study. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46(2):733-9.
Odes HS, Madar Z. A double-blind trial of a celandin, aloevera and psyllium laxative preparation in adult patients with constipation. Digestion. 1991;49(2):65-71.
Park MY, Kwon HJ, Sung MK. Evaluation of aloin and aloe-emodin as anti-inflammatory agents in aloe by using murine macrophages. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73(4):828-32.
Paulsen E, Korsholm L, Brandrup F. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a commercial Aloe vera gel in the treatment of slight to moderate psoriasis vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2005 May;19(3):326-31.
Reuter J, Jocher A, Stump J, Grossjohann B, Franke G, Schempp CM. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory potential of Aloe vera gel (97.5%) in the ultraviolet erythema test. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2008;21(2):106-10.
Saka WA, Akhhigbe RE, Ishola OS, Ashamu EA, Olayemi OT, Adeleke GE. Hepatotherapeutic effect of Aloe vera in alcohol-induced hepatic damage. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14(14):742-6.
Shahzad MN, Ahmed N. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera gel compared with 1% silver sulphadiazine cream as burn wound dressing in second degree burns. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013;63(2):225-30.
Singh RP, Dhanalakshmi S, Rao AR. Chemomodulatory action of Aloe vera on the profiles of enzymes associated with carcinogen metabolism and antioxidant status regulation in mice. Phytomed. 2000;7(3):209-219.
Somboonwong J, Jariyapongskul A, Thanamittramanee S, et al. Therapeutic effects of aloe vera on cutaneous microcirculation and wound healing in second degree burn model in rats. J Med Assoc Thai. 2000;83:417-425.
Syed TA, Ahmad SA, Holt AH, et al. Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Trop Med Int Health. 1996;1:505-509.
Vazquez B, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from aloe vera gel. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;55:69-75.
Visuthikosol V, Sukwanarat Y, Chowchuen B, et al. Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and histologic study. J Med Assoc Thai. 1995:78(8):402-408.
Volgler BK, Ernst E. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. Br J Gen Pract. 1999;49:823-828.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- 2013 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.