Getting enough calcium to keep bones strong throughout a person's life may be hard for people who have lactose intolerance or other reasons (such as a tendency toward kidney stones) for avoiding calcium-rich foods. Calcium deficiency also affects the heart and circulatory system, as well as the secretion of essential hormones. There are many ways to supplement calcium, including a growing number of fortified foods.
Reviewed last on: 3/7/2009
Linda Vorvick, MD, Family Physician, Seattle Site Coordinator, Lecturer, Pathophysiology, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.