Alcohol dependence; Alcohol abuse
Even when people with alcoholism experience withdrawal symptoms, they nearly always deny the problem, leaving it up to co-workers, friends, or relatives to recognize the symptoms and to take the first steps toward encouraging treatment. Denial, in fact, may be an important warning signal for alcoholism.
Family members cannot always rely on a doctor to make an initial diagnosis. Although 15 - 30% of people who are hospitalized have alcoholism or alcohol dependence, doctors often fail to screen for the problem. In addition, doctors themselves often do not recognize the symptoms. Even when doctors identify an alcohol problem, however, they are frequently reluctant to confront the patient with a diagnosis that might lead to treatment for addiction.
A doctor who suspects alcohol abuse should ask the patient questions about current and past drinking habits to distinguish moderate from heavy, or hazardous, drinking. Screening tests for alcohol problems in older people should account for possible medical problems or medications that might place them at higher risk for hazardous drinking than younger individuals.
A number of short screening tests are available, which a person can even take on their own. Because people with alcoholism often deny their problem or otherwise attempt to hide it, the tests are designed to elicit answers related to problems associated with drinking rather than the amount of liquor consumed or other specific drinking habits.
CAGE Test. The CAGE test is an acronym for the following questions and is the quickest test:
This test and another called the Self-Administered Alcoholism Screening Test (SAAST) appear to be most useful in detecting possible alcoholism in white, middle-aged males.
T-ACE Test. The T-ACE test is a four-question test that asks the following questions:
A positive response to two of these four questions is considered to indicate possible alcohol abuse or dependence.
AUDIT Test. A more effective and important test for most people may be the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), which is the only test specifically designed to identify hazardous or harmful drinking. It asks three questions about amount and frequency of drinking, three questions about alcohol dependence, and four questions about problems related to alcohol consumption.
A Single-Question. One simple question may be as sensitive as the CAGE or AUDIT: "When was the last time you had more than five drinks (for men) or four drinks (for women) in one day?" An answer of "within 3 months" accurately identified about half of people who were problem drinkers. Problem drinking is defined as hazardous drinking within the last month or some alcohol-use disorder during the past year.
Other Screening Tests. Other short screening tests are the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS).
Some symptoms of alcoholism may be attributed to other disorders, particularly in the elderly, where symptoms of confusion, memory loss, or falling may be attributed to the aging process alone. Heavy drinkers may be more likely to complain to their doctors about so-called somatization symptoms, which are vague ailments, such as joint pain, intestinal problems, or general weakness, that have no identifiable physical cause. Such complaints should signal the doctor to follow-up with screening tests for alcoholism.
Alcoholism is particularly difficult to detect in elderly women. In fact, only 1% of older women who need treatment for alcoholism are diagnosed accurately and treated appropriately. Instead, they are often diagnosed with depression and may even be prescribed anti-anxiety drugs or antidepressants that can have dangerous interactions with alcohol.
Physical Examination. A physical examination and other tests should be performed to uncover any related medical problems.
Laboratory Tests. Tests for alcohol levels in the blood are not useful for diagnosing alcoholism because they reflect consumption at only one point in time and not long-term usage. Certain blood tests, however, may provide biologic markers that suggest medical problems associated with alcoholism or indications of alcohol abuse:
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