Babesiosis; Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA)
Antibiotics are the drugs of choice for all phases of Lyme disease. In nearly all cases they can cure Lyme, even in later stages.
According to guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), people bitten by deer ticks should not routinely receive antibiotics to prevent the disease.
A single dose of the antibiotic doxycycline may be given in situations that meet all of the following conditions:
In general, the risk of developing Lyme disease after being bitten by a tick is only 1 - 3%. However, patients who have removed attached ticks from themselves should inform their doctors. Patients who have been bitten by a tick should be monitored for up to 30 days to make sure they do not develop symptoms of Lyme disease, especially the tell-tale bullā ' s-eye rash. If you do develop a skin lesion or flu-like illness during this time, be sure to tell your doctor.
The early stages of Lyme disease usually involve classic bullā ' s-eye rash (erythema migrans) and flu-like symptoms of chills and fever, fatigue, muscle pain, and headache. In rare cases, patients develop an abnormal heartbeat (Lyme carditis).
All of these conditions are treated with 10 - 28 days of antibiotics. The exact number of days depends on the drug used, and the patientā ' s response to it. Antibiotics for treating Lyme disease generally include:
Side Effects of Antibiotics. The most common side effects of nearly all antibiotics are gastrointestinal problems, including cramps, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Allergic reactions can also occur with all antibiotics, but are most common with medications derived from penicillin or sulfa. These reactions can range from mild skin rashes to rare but severe, even life-threatening, anaphylactic shock. Some drugs, including certain over-the-counter medications, interact with antibiotics. Patients should report to their doctors all medications they are taking.
Most cases of Lyme disease involve a rash and flu-like symptoms that resolve within 1 month of antibiotic treatment. However, some patients go on to develop late-stage Lyme disease, which includes Lyme arthritis and neurologic Lyme disease.
Slightly more than half of patients infected with B. burgdorferi develop Lyme arthritis. About 10 - 20 % of patients develop neurologic Lyme disease. A very small percentage of patients may develop acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, a serious type of skin inflammation. These conditions are treated for up to 28 days with antibiotic therapy. If arthritis symptoms persist for several months, a second 2 - 4 week course of antibiotics may be recommended. Oral antibiotics (doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime) are used for Lyme arthritis and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. (In rare cases, patients with arthritis may need intravenous antibiotics.)
A 2 - 4 week course of intravenous ceftriaxone is used for treating severe cases of neurological Lyme disease. For milder cases, 2 - 4 weeks of oral doxycycline is an effective option.
In about 5% of cases, symptoms persist after treatment, a condition referred to as post-Lyme disease syndrome. The treatment of post-Lyme disease syndrome is a controversial issue. Most doctors do not recommend continuing antibiotic therapy beyond 30 days. Scientific studies do not show any evidence that the benefits of long-term antibiotic treatment outweigh its risks. Long-term antibiotic treatment can lead to a serious and difficult-to-treat infection called Clostridiumdifficile, and can also cause the patient to become allergic to the antibiotic.
Experimental and alternative remedies are also not recommended. However, some patients may benefit from learning pain control and cognitive behavioral techniques to help them cope with and manage their symptoms.
Some people use vitamin B complex, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (found in primrose oil and fish oils), and magnesium supplements (magnesium L-lactate dihydrate) to help relieve symptoms. No evidence suggests that they are beneficial. Any such therapies should be discussed with a doctor. Newsletters and Internet sites have cropped up in recent years advertising untested treatments to patients with symptoms of Lyme disease who are frustrated with traditional medical channels. Some remedies are dangerous, and most are ineffective.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned people not to use an alternative medicine product called bismacine (also known as chromacine). This injectable product contains high amounts of bismuth, a heavy metal that can be poisonous. People who have taken bismacine have experienced heart and kidney failure, and one death has been reported. Although some people claim that bismacine can help treat Lyme disease, it is not approved for the treatment of any illness or condition.
Generally, manufacturers of herbal remedies and dietary supplements do not need FDA approval to sell their products. Just like a drug, herbs and supplements can affect the body's chemistry, and therefore have the potential to produce side effects that may be harmful. There have been a number of reported cases of serious and even lethal side effects from herbal products. Always check with your doctor before using any herbal remedies or dietary supplements.
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