Causes of Male Infertility
More than 90% of male infertility cases are due to low sperm counts, poor sperm quality, or both. The remaining cases of male infertility can be caused by a range of conditions including anatomical problems, hormonal imbalances, and genetic defects.
Sperm abnormalities are a critical factor in male infertility. These abnormalities include:
Risk factors for male infertility include:
In addition to a medical history and physical exam, specific tests for male infertility include:
Treatment for male infertility should first address any underlying medical condition that may be contributing to fertility problems. Drug therapy may be used to treat hormonal disorders. Surgery is used to repair varioceles and correct any obstructions in the reproductive tract.
If fertility issues remain unresolved, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is commonly used in combination with in vitro fertilization (IVF) to achieve pregnancy when male infertility is a factor. ICSI involves injecting a single sperm into an egg obtained through IVF. The fertilized egg is then implanted back into the woman. Pregnancy success rates depend on many different factors.
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