Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder. It occurs when tissues in the upper airways come too close to each other during sleep, temporarily blocking the inflow of air.
Who Is At Risk
Obstructive sleep apnea can develop in anyone at any age but most often occurs in people who are:
Sleep Apnea Symptoms
Symptoms of sleep apnea include:
Patients with sleep apnea may find these lifestyle changes helpful:
The treatment of obstructive sleep apnea depends in part on the severity of the condition. Treatment options include:
Ahmed M, Patel NP, Rosen I. Portable monitors in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 2007 Nov;132(5):1672-7.
Ballard RD. Management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Fam Pract. 2008 Aug;57(8 Suppl):S24-30.
Basner RC. Continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnea. N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 26;356(17):1751-8.
Berry RB, Hill G, Thompson L, McLaurin V. Portable monitoring and autotitration versus polysomnography for the diagnosis and treatment of sleep apena. Sleep. 2008 Oct 1;31(10):1423-31.
Bradley TD, Floras JS. Obstructive sleep apnoea and its cardiovascular consequences. Lancet. 2009 Jan 3;373(9657):82-93. Epub 2008 Dec 26.
Chan AS, Lee RW, Cistulli PA. Dental appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 2007 Aug;132(2):693-9.
Collop NA, Anderson WM, Boehlecke B, Claman D, Goldberg R, Gottlieb DJ, et al. Clinical guidelines for the use of unattended portable monitors in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients. Portable Monitoring Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007 Dec 15;3(7):737-47.
Darrow DH. Surgery for pediatric sleep apnea. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2007 Aug;40(4):855-75.
Franklin, KA, Anttila H, Axelsson S, Gislason T, Maasilta P, Myhre K I, et al. Effects and side-effects of surgery for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea--a systematic review. Sleep. 2009 Jan 1; 32(1): 27-36.
Friedman M, Schalch P. Surgery of the palate and oropharynx. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2007 Aug;40(4):829-43.
Gami AS, Somers VK. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Libby P, Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 8th ed. St. Louis, Mo: WB Saunders; 2007:chap 74.
Hirshkowitz M. The clinical consequences of obstructive sleep apnea and associated excessive sleepiness. J Fam Pract. 2008 Aug;57(8 Suppl):S9-16.
Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). Diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Bloomington (MN): Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI); 2007 Mar.
Kezirian EJ, Weaver EM, Yueh B, Khuri SF, Daley J, Henderson WG. Risk factors for serious complication after uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 Oct;132(10):1091-8.
Li KK. Hypopharyngeal airway surgery. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2007 Aug;40(4):845-53.
Marshall NS, Wong KK, Liu PY, Cullen SR, Knuiman MW, Grunstein RR. Sleep apnea as an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality: the Busselton Health Study. Sleep. 2008 Aug 1;31(8):1079-85.
Morgenthaler T, Alessi C, Friedman L, Owens J, Kapur V, Boehlecke B, et al. Practice parameters for the use of actigraphy in the assessment of sleep and sleep disorders: an update for 2007. Sleep. 2007 Apr 1;30(4):519-29.
Morgenthaler TI, Aurora RN, Brown T, Zak R, Alessi C, Boehlecke B, et al. Practice parameters for the use of autotitrating continuous positive airway pressure devices for titrating pressures and treating adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: an update for 2007. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Sleep. 2008 Jan 1;31(1):141-7.
Morgenthaler TI, Kapen S, Lee-Chiong T, Alessi C, Boehlecke B, Brown T, Coleman J, et al. Practice parameters for the medical therapy of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep. 2006 Aug 1;29(8):1031-5.
Mulgrew AT, Fox N, Ayas NT, Ryan CF. Diagnosis and initial management of obstructive sleep apnea without polysomnography: a randomized validation study. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Feb 6;146(3):157-66.
Owens JA. Sleep medicine. Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. St. Louis, MO: WB Saunders; 2007:chap 18.
Patel NP, Ahmed M, Rosen I. Split-night polysomnography. Chest. 2007 Nov;132(5):1664-71.
Patil SP, Schneider H, Schwartz AR, Smith PL. Adult obstructive sleep apnea: pathophysiology and diagnosis. Chest. 2007 Jul;132(1):325-37.
Somers VK, White DP, Amin R, Abraham WT, Costa F, Culebras A, et al. Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: an American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association Council for High Blood Pressure Research Professional Education Committee, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke Council, and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Aug 19;52(8):686-717
Sundaram S, Bridgman SA, Lim J, Lasserson TJ. Surgery for obstructive sleep apnoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Oct 19;(4):CD001004.
Waller EA, Bendel RE, Kaplan J. Sleep disorders and the eye. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 Nov;83(11):1251-61.
Young T, Finn L, Peppard PE, Szklo-Coxe M, Austin D, Nieto FJ, et al. Sleep disordered breathing and mortality: eighteen-year follow-up of the Wisconsin sleep cohort. Sleep. 2008 Aug 1;31(8):1071-8.
© 2011 University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC). All rights reserved.
UMMC is a member of the University of Maryland Medical System,
22 S. Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201. TDD: 1-800-735-2258 or 1.866.408.6885