Get answers to your menopause and sexual dysfunction questions.
PMS, and in particular premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), can have an adverse effect on women's relationships with co-workers, partners, and children.
Depression and PMS often coincide, and may in some cases be due to common factors. Some studies suggest that PMDD may lead to or predict perimenopausal depression in some women.
Women who abuse alcohol or have close relatives who are alcoholics, have a much higher risk for drinking during the premenstrual period. Alcohol worsens PMS symptoms and may increase the risk for prolonged cramping (dysmenorrhea) during menstruation.
Studies also have found a higher incidence of smoking in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder than in women without PMDD.
A number of conditions worsen during the premenstrual or menstrual phase of the cycle, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as menstrual magnification.
Migraines. About half of women with migraines report an association with menstruation, usually in the first days before or after menstruation begins. Compared to migraines that occur at other times of the month, menstrual migraines tend to be more severe, last longer, and not have auras.
Asthma. Asthma attacks often increase or worsen during the premenstrual period.
Other Disorders. Many other chronic medical conditions may be exacerbated during the premenstrual phase, including epilepsy and other seizure disorders, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Braverman PK. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2007 Feb;20(1):3-12.
Brown J, O' Brien PM, Marjoribanks J, Wyatt K. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD001396.
Jarvis CI, Lynch AM, Morin AK. Management strategies for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Jul;42(7):967-78. Epub 2008 Jun 17
Kwan I and Onwude JL. Premenstrual syndrome. BMJ Clinical Evidence. Web publication date: 01 May 2007.
Lentz GM. Primary and secondary dysmenorrheal, premenstrual syndrome, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Etiology, diagnosis, management. In: Katz VL, Lobo RA, Lentz G, Gershenson D, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology. 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2007:chap 36.
Lopez LM, Kaptein AA, Helmerhorst FM. Oral contraceptives containing drospirenone for premenstrual syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD006586.
Yonkers KA, O'Brien PM, Eriksson E. Premenstrual syndrome. Lancet. 2008 Apr 5;371(9619):1200-10.
© 2011 University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC). All rights reserved.
UMMC is a member of the University of Maryland Medical System,
22 S. Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201. TDD: 1-800-735-2258 or 1.866.408.6885