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An in-depth report on the treatment of menopause-related symptoms.
Estrogen; Hormone replacement therapy
The most prominent symptoms of the transition to menopause include:
Women from different ethnic and or cultural groups report different menopausal symptoms. For example, in one study hot flashes occurred in about 30% of Caucasians and 45% of African-Americans. Hispanic women tended to complain of urine leakage, vaginal dryness, and heart pounding. Japanese and Chinese women had far fewer menopausal symptoms, except for forgetfulness. All groups complained about this symptom.
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Gynecologic Practice. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 420, November 2008: hormone therapy and heart disease. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Nov;112(5):1189-92.
Borrelli F, Ernst E. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa): a systematic review of adverse events. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Nov;199(5):455-66.
Beral V; Million Women Study Collaborators; Bull D, Green J, Reeves G. Ovarian cancer and hormone replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet. 2007 May 19;369(9574):1703-10.
Chlebowski RT, Kuller LH, Prentice RL, Stefanick ML, Manson JE, Gass M, et al. Breast cancer after use of estrogen plus progestin in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 5;360(6):573-87.
Col NF, Fairfield KM, Ewan-Whyte C, Miller H. In the clinic. Menopause. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Apr 7;150(7):ITC4-1-15.
Davis SR, Moreau M, Kroll R, Bouchard C, Panay N, Gass M, et al. Testosterone for low libido in postmenopausal women not taking estrogen. N Engl J Med. 2008 Nov 6;359(19):2005-17.
Farquhar C, Marjoribanks J, Lethaby A, Suckling JA, Lamberts Q. Long term hormone therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD004143.
Furness S, Roberts H, Marjoribanks J, Lethaby A, Hickey M, Farquhar C. Hormone therapy in postmenopausal women and risk of endometrial hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15;(2):CD000402.
Grodstein F, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rexrode K. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and stroke: role of time since menopause and age at initiation of hormone therapy. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Apr 28;168(8):861-6.
Haimov-Kochman R, Barak-Glantz E, Arbel R, Leefsma M, Brzezinski A, Milwidsky A, et al. Gradual discontinuation of hormone therapy does not prevent the reappearance of climacteric symptoms: a randomized prospective study. Menopause. 2006 May-Jun;13(3):370-6.
Lethaby A, Hogervorst E, Richards M, Yesufu A, Yaffe K. Hormone replacement therapy for cognitive function in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD003122.
Mosca L, Banka CL, Benjamin EJ, Berra K, Bushnell C, Dolor RJ, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women: 2007 update. Circulation. 2007 Mar 20;115(11):1481-501.
Nelson HD. Menopause. Lancet. 2008 Mar 1;371(9614):760-70.
[No authors listed]. Herbal medicines for menopausal symptoms. Drug Ther Bull. 2009 Jan;47(1):2-6.
North American Menopause Society. Estrogen and progestogen use in peri- and postmenopausal women: March 2007 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2007 Mar-Apr;14(2):168-82.
North American Menopause Society. The role of local vaginal estrogen for treatment of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: 2007 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2007 May-Jun;14(3 Pt 1):355-69.
Ravdin PM, Cronin KA, Howlader N, Berg CD, Chlebowski RT, Feuer EJ, et al. The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 19;356(16):1670-4.
Reed SD, Newton KM, LaCroix AZ, Grothaus LC, Grieco VS, Ehrlich K. Vaginal, endometrial, and reproductive hormone findings: randomized, placebo-controlled trial of black cohosh, multibotanical herbs, and dietary soy for vasomotor symptoms: the Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study. Menopause. 2008 Jan-Feb;15(1):51-8.
Rossouw JE, Prentice RL, Manson JE, Wu L, Barad D, Barnabei VM, et al. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause. JAMA. 2007 Apr 4;297(13):1465-77.
Tamimi RM, Hankinson SE, Chen WY, Rosner B, Colditz GA. Combined estrogen and testosterone use and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 2006 Jul 24;166(14):1483-9.
Utian WH, Archer DF, Bachmann GA, Gallagher C, Grodstein F, Heiman JR, et al. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause. 2008 Jul-Aug;15(4 Pt 1):584-602.
Wierman ME, Basson R, Davis SR, Khosla S, Miller KK, Rosner W, et al. Androgen therapy in women: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Oct;91(10):3697-710. Epub 2006 Oct 3.
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