Get answers to your Adult Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia questions.
Acute lymphoblastic (or lymphocytic) leukemia
There are typically four treatment stages for the average-risk patient with ALL:
The following are specific treatments used for ALL:
Drugs Used to Prevent Infections During Treatment. Half of all patients with ALL develop fever in the early stages, especially if patients also have low levels of the white blood cells called neutrophils (a condition called neutropenia).
Neutropenia, common in ALL, is a significant risk factor for serious infection. Doctors are increasingly concerned about fungal infections, which are becoming more common in these patients, particularly after transplant procedures.
Intravenous Fluids. Patients may also need to receive intravenous fluids and be treated for fluid imbalances, which can cause abnormal levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, and uric acid. Such treatments might include sodium bicarbonate, allopurinol, and aluminum hydroxide or calcium carbonate.
Transfusions. Red blood cell or platelet transfusions may be needed. (Patients who may need allogeneic transplantations should not receive transfusions from potential donors.)
Belson M, Kingsley B, Holmes A. Risk factors for acute leukemia in children: a review. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Jan;115(1):138-45.
Campbell LK, Scaduto M, Sharp W, et al. A meta-analysis of the neurocognitive sequelae of treatment for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007 Jul;49(1):65-73.
Campana D and Pui CH. Childhood Leukemia. In: Abeloff MD, Armitage JO, Niederhuber JE, Kastan MB, McKena WG, eds. Clinical Oncology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 101.
Hijiya N, Hudson MM, Lensing S, et al. Cumulative incidence of secondary neoplasms as a first event after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. JAMA. 2007 Mar 21;297(11):1207-15.
Peterson CC, Johnson CE, Ramirez LY, Huestis S, Pai AL, Demaree HA, et al. A meta-analysis of the neuropsychological sequelae of chemotherapy-only treatment for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008 Jul;51(1):99-104.
Pui CH, Robison LL, Look AT. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lancet. 2008 Mar 22;371(9617):1030-43.
Ribera JM, Ortega JJ, Oriol A, et al. Comparison of intensive chemotherapy, allogeneic, or autologous stem-cell transplantation as postremission treatment for children with very high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: PETHEMA ALL-93 Trial. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Jan 1;25(1):16-24.
Thomas X, Dombret H. Treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008 Jul;49(7):1246-54.
Thomas X, Le QH. Central nervous system involvement in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hematology. 2008 Oct;13(5):293-302.
Trigg ME, Sather HN, Reaman GH, Tubergen DG, Steinherz PG, Gaynon PS, et al. Ten-year survival of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group. Leuk Lymphoma. 2008 Jun;49(6):1142-54.
Waber DP, Turek J, Catania L, et al. Neuropsychological outcomes from a randomized trial of triple intrathecal chemotherapy compared with 18 Gy cranial radiation as CNS treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: findings from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 95-01. J Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov 1;25(31):4914-21.
Yang JJ, Cheng C, Yang W, Pei D, Cao X, Fan Y, et al. Genome-wide interrogation of germline genetic variation associated with treatment response in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. JAMA. 2009 Jan 28;301(4):393-403.
© 2011 University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC). All rights reserved.
UMMC is a member of the University of Maryland Medical System,
22 S. Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201. TDD: 1-800-735-2258 or 1.866.408.6885