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Researchers are still uncertain about the causes of premenstrual syndrome. Fluctuations in gonadal hormones (progesterone or estrogen) and brain chemicals may play a role although their exact significance is unclear. Hormonal levels seem to be the same in women whether or not they have premenstrual syndrome. It is possible that women with premenstrual syndrome are somehow more responsive to these changing levels of hormones.
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system controls reproduction, appetite, and feelings of well-being. The HPA is also involved in regulating the stress response. A number of reproductive hormones and neurotransmitters (chemical messengers in the brain) play important and complicated interrelated roles in the activity of the HPA system. Disruptions in these chemicals may be important in PMS and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).
The exact roles and relationships of any of these substances in PMS or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) are still unclear. Evidence increasingly suggests that cyclic fluctuations in some of these hormones -- not whether they are high or low -- may be the important factors in premenstrual problems.
Calcium and Magnesium. Calcium and magnesium help nerve cells to communicate and blood vessels to widen and narrow. Imbalances in these minerals may contribute to PMS.
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