The average age of onset of Parkinson's disease is 55. About 10% of Parkinson's cases are in people younger than 40 years old. Older adults are at higher risk for both parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease.
Parkinson‚ ' s disease is more common in men than in women.
People with siblings or parents who developed Parkinson's at a younger age are at higher risk for Parkinson's disease, but relatives of those who were elderly when they had the disease appear to have an average risk.
African- and Asian-Americans appear to have a lower risk than Caucasians.
Both smoking and coffee drinking have been associated with a lower risk for PD.
Smoking and Nicotine Replacement. Cigarette smokers appear to have a 40% lower risk for Parkinson's disease, indicating some protection by nicotine. This finding, of course, is no excuse to smoke. Studies on nicotine replacement as a treatment for Parkinson‚ ' s have been few and have not provided any strong evidence that nicotine therapy provides benefits.
Coffee Consumption. Some studies have indicated that the risk for PD in coffee drinkers is about 30% lower than for non-coffee drinkers. In a 30-year study of Japanese-American men, coffee consumption was associated with a lower risk for Parkinson's disease, and the more coffee they drank, the lower their risk became.
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