Type 1 diabetes; Insulin-dependent diabetes; Juvenile diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes consisting of only 5 - 10% of all cases of diabetes. Nevertheless, like type 2 diabetes, the incidence of type 1 diabetes among children and adolescents has been rising over the past few decades. While type 2 diabetes has been increasing among African-American and Hispanic adolescents, the highest rates of type 1 diabetes are found among Caucasian youth.
Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age but usually appears between infancy and the late 30s, most typically in childhood or adolescence. Males and females are equally at risk. Studies report the following may be risk factors for developing type 1 diabetes:
Alemzadeh R and Wyatt DT. Diabetes mellitus. In: Kliegman RM, ed. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th edition. Saunders; 2007:chap 590.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes -- 2009. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jan;32 Suppl 1:S13-61.
Bakris GL, Sowers JR; American Society of Hypertension Writing Group. ASH position paper: treatment of hypertension in patients with diabetes-an update. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008 Sep;10(9):707-13; discussion 714-5.
Camilleri M. Clinical practice. Diabetic gastroparesis. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 22;356(8):820-9.
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study Research Group, Jacobson AM, Musen G, Ryan CM, Silvers N, Cleary P, et al. Long-term effect of diabetes and its treatment on cognitive function. N Engl J Med. 2007 May 3;356(18):1842-52.
Farrar D, Tuffnell DJ, West J. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections of insulin for pregnant women with diabetes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD005542.
Fiorina P, Secchi A. Pancreatic islet cell transplant for treatment of diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2007 Dec;36(4):999-1013; ix.
Drueke TB, Locatelli F, Clyne N, Eckardt KU, Macdougall IC, Tsakiris D, et al. Normalization of hemoglobin level in patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia. N Engl J Med. 2006 Nov 16;355(20):2071-84.
Hunt D. Foot ulcers and amputations in diabetes. Clin Evid. 2006 Jun;(15):576-84.
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring Study Group, Tamborlane WV, Beck RW, Bode BW, Buckingham B, Chase HP, et al. Continuous glucose monitoring and intensive treatment of type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008 Oct 2;359(14):1464-76. Epub 2008 Sep 8.
Retnakaran R, Zinman B. Type 1 diabetes, hyperglycaemia, and the heart. Lancet. 2008 May 24;371(9626):1790-9.
SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group, Liese AD, D'Agostino RB, Hamman RF, Kilgo PD, Lawrence JM, et al. The burden of diabetes mellitus among US youth: prevalence estimates from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Pediatrics. 2006 Oct;118(4):1510-8.
Shapiro AM, Ricordi C, Hering BJ, Auchincloss H, Lindblad R, Robertson RP, et al. International trial of the Edmonton protocol for islet transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2006 Sep 28;355(13):1318-30.
Skyler JS. Cellular therapy for type 1 diabetes: has the time come? JAMA. 2007 Apr 11;297(14):1599-600.
Vardi M, Nini A. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors for erectile dysfunction in patients with diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24(1):CD002187.
Voltarelli JC, Couri CE, Stracieri AB, Oliveira MC, Moraes DA, Pieroni F, et al. Autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2007 Apr 11;297(14):1568-76.
Writing Group for the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study Group , Dabelea D, Bell RA, D'Agostino RB, Imperatore G, Johansen JM, et al. Incidence of diabetes in youth in the United States. JAMA. 2007 Jun 27;297(24):2716-24.
© 2011 University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC). All rights reserved.
UMMC is a member of the University of Maryland Medical System,
22 S. Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201. TDD: 1-800-735-2258 or 1.866.408.6885