The Department of Pharmacy provides systems-based services including drug and disease state information, drug preparation and distribution, and dosage monitoring services for all patients. All physician orders/prescriptions for medications are reviewed by a clinical pharmacist for appropriateness of therapy and entered into a pharmacy database. This database provides clinical screening, drug preparation lists, drug production reports, and other drug use information.
A central distribution area and several satellite work areas including outpatient pharmacies support the delivery of product-related and clinical services to patients and health care providers of UMMC. General pharmacy services include:
Clinical pharmacy specialists and clinical pharmacists provide direct patient care throughout the institution. Many of these practitioners are active, integral members of medical service teams and assist the team by providing services including:
- drug selection
- pharmacokinetic assessment and drug dosing
- drug information
- patient medication counseling and education
- other patient-focused services to optimize drug therapy outcomes
All pharmacists provide patient and health care provider education; participate in Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) and Medication Error programs; and participate in investigational drug research, drug and therapeutic policy development and implementation, and other cost and quality enhancement programs and projects. Pharmacists' interventions are recorded and often documented in the medical record.
Types and Ages of Patients Served
The ages, sexual distribution, medical requirements, disease states, and general conditions of patients served by the Department of Pharmacy Services are the same as those of the general patient population served by UMMC.
Scope and Complexity of Patient Care Needs
With technical and management support, clinical pharmacists/specialists:
- document the resolution or prevention of nearly 22,000 drug-related problems
- provide about 3.7 million inpatient doses and about 290,000 outpatient prescriptions
- prepare about 455,000 sterile admixtures
- manage about 200 research studies every year
Patient-focused activities are provided from admission to discharge and continue on an outpatient basis through ambulatory care services.
Strategies to Assess and Meet Patient Care Needs
The department's vision is to be standard setting in its provision of direct patient care and to continuously develop methods that improve this practice.
- assess patient care requirements by patient interview
- collaborate with physicians and other health care providers
- provide clinical assessment of the medication-related problems
- provide physical assessment, if necessary
- assess, recommend and monitor the medication regimen
- review the medical record for additional patient information
Patient Care Providers
Direct patient care or pharmaceutical care is provided by all employees of the Department of Pharmacy Services. Listed below are the components that make up the Pharmaceutical Care Team:
- Director of Pharmacy Services
- Clinical Pharmacy Manager
- Pharmacy Operations Managers and Process Coordinators
- Clinical Pharmacists and Clinical Specialists
- Pharmacy Technicians
- Pharmacy Residents and Students
- Inventory Control Specialists
- Administrative Assistants
- Technology Support Personnel
- School of Pharmacy Faculty members
Pharmaceutical care includes, but is not limited to, appropriate, accurate, and timely dispensing of medications to patients. Regulations set by the Maryland State Board of Pharmacy and Federal Government govern these practices. Professional and ethical practice are maintained at all times through adherence to the department's, institution's, and profession's code of professional conduct.
Pharmacy work areas are staffed by:
- clinical pharmacists/specialists
- pharmacy operation managers
- inventory control specialists
Staffing requirements are determined by known daily patterns of physician order generation and times when therapeutic decision making occurs (e.g. pharmacist rounds with the medical teams). Sudden changes in staffing requirements are accommodated by:
- temporary hiring of supplemental staff
- shifting staff and work among work areas
A staffing model is prepared annually to outline workload data, staffing patterns, and fiscal year budget information. Performance is tracked bi-weekly and discussed monthly in combination with quality, human resource, and financial data.
The Department of Pharmacy Services maintains nationally recognized one-year residency programs in General Pharmacy Practice, Critical Care Pharmacy Practice, and Transplant Pharmacy Practice.
The General Pharmacy Practice and Critical Care Pharmacy Practice residencies are nationally accredited by the American Society of Health Systems Pharmacists (ASHP). Pharmacy residents are fully licensed practitioners and are trained by clinical pharmacy specialists and clinical pharmacists to provide proficient and compassionate direct patient care, to conduct research projects associated with the UMMC medication use process, and to educate patients, other health care providers, and students.
Click here for a full description of the department's residency program. Pharmacy students and residents may work with various medical service teams and patient populations. These interactions occur under the supervision and direction of clinical pharmacists/specialists who are residency preceptors and appointed clinical faculty members at the Maryland School of Pharmacy.
The department provides documents to orient health care providers and UMMC staff on pharmacy services including:
- UMMC Formulary - published annually and distributed to all house staff and patient care areas
- P&T Highlights - departmental newsletter published monthly
The Internet site you are currently visiting is used to communicate new and revised therapeutic policies and other important medication information to the hospital staff.
Hospital orientation is provided to staff in addition to annual training, ongoing professional development, and appropriate competency validation.
Extent to Which Care Meets Patient Care Needs
Patient care quality measures are reported to the Process Improvement Steering Committee (PISC). Among these are medication error and ADR trends, results of focused medication use evaluations, and results of drug-use and process improvement projects.
This department complies with the UMMC Hospital Policy Manual and all federal, state, and regulatory standards to guide practice. Additional patient care standards and clinical guidelines used are published in the UMMC Formulary.
Other standards of care used by the department include:
- Therapeutic Guidelines for Medication Use developed and approved by the UMMC Therapeutics Committee
- IV Push Guidelines Manual
- Adult IV Medication Administration Guidelines
- Medication Protocols or Algorithms
- Critical Pathways
- Investigational Drug Protocols approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB)
The Pharmacy Leadership Team determines the short and long term departmental goals, which are consistent with and focus on fulfillment of the department's and institution's mission and vision.