Rapid shallow breathing
A normal breathing rate for an adult at rest is 8 to 16 breaths per minute. For an infant, a normal rate is up to 44 breaths per minute.
Tachypnea is the term that your health care provider uses to describe your breathing if it is too fast, especially if you have fast, shallow breathing from a lung disease or other medical cause.
The term hyperventilation is usually used if you are taking rapid, deep breaths. This can be due to lung disease or because of anxiety or panic. The terms are sometimes used interchangeably.
Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow
Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including:
Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is generally considered a medical emergency (unless anxiety is the only cause).
If you have asthma or COPD, use your inhaler medicines as prescribed by your provider. You may still need to be checked by a provider right away if you have rapid shallow breathing. Your provider will explain when it is important to go to the emergency room.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call 911 or go to the emergency room if you are breathing rapidly and you have:
Bluish or grayish color to the skin, nails, gums, lips, or the area around the eyes (cyanosis)
Chest that is pulling in with each breath
Labored or difficult breathing
Never had rapid breathing before
Symptoms that are getting more severe
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
The provider will do a thorough exam of your heart, lungs, abdomen, and head and neck.
Tests that may be ordered include:
Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the rapid breathing. Treatment may include oxygen if your oxygen level is too low. If you are having an asthma or a COPD attack, you'll receive treatment to stop the attack.
Kraft M. Approach to the patient with respiratory disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 83.
McGee S. Respiratory rate and abnormal breathing patterns. In: McGee S, ed. Evidence-Based Physical Diagnosis. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 19.
- Last reviewed on 5/21/2017
- Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, MHS, Paul F. Harron Jr. Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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